Jul 022012
 
Scientific Name: Cyperus rotundus

Anuria – cessation of urine

Anuria
Anuria means cessation of urine output. Anuria may result from severe disease of, or inadequate blood flow through, the kidneys, or a complete blockage of urine flow by anything such as stones or tumours that blocks both ureters or the bladder outlet, or obstructs the urethra by enlargement of the prostate gland. Anuria is an emergency needing urgent investigation so that its cause can be discovered and corrected, if possible. Other 00004000 wise renal DIALYSIS must be used to prevent death from accumulation of waste products. Or even with color acupuncture one may get positive results bu putting certain colors and natural beans on points lacated in miniature form of hands.
BUT, with ACUPUNCTURE SUJOK, energy concept anuria means excess Yang Coldness condition and towards the Darkness condition,as non production of urine, indicates kidney failure, obstruction of ureters. One may get the positive results even from the initial one or two sessions of acupuncture, simultaneously urine output may be increased immediately.
Acupuncture is a component of Onnuri Medicine, and involves inserting of very fine, thin, metal needles into specific ‘points’ or ‘energy pathways’ located in miniature form of hands and feets. The treatment concept is that inserting the needle stimulates these ‘energy pathways’ and unblocks the natural flow of light energy (qi or chi) through the body. Blocked qi is thought to cause disease. Unblocking qi allows the body to heal itself. It’s easy way to tackle the problem with the meridian kidney and urinary bladder.
your smile thoughts; originsmile.wordpress.com ‘Dr.Dinesh kapur
To your well being, smile life!

About the author: ACUPUNCTURE ~ Dr. DINESHKAPUR

SuJok
Prof Park, Jae Woo, a Korean scientist is the originator of SuJok and Onnuri Medicine, an exceptionaldiscovery, who after many years of careful observation and clinical experiences developed a new system of therapy using only the hands and feet to effect the same results as body acupuncture. He found a complete correspondence system representing the whole body, on the hands and the feet. In Korean, Su means “Hand,” and Jok means “Feet.”
The advantage of this system is its simplicity, safety and efficiency. It is easy to learn, and the speed of response is often dramatic. It employs no forbidden or dangerous points, and is therefore suitable for use by paramedics and laypersons for self-treatment.
In addition to serving their normal function as appendages of the four limbs, the hands and feet themselves represent a small mirror image of the human.
CURE effect
a Nervous system disorders~ Amnesia, Bells palsy, Bulbarpalsy, Encephalitis, Epilepsy, Headaches, Insomnia, Logo neurosis, Migraine, Neurotic Depressive disorder, Parkinson’s, Spastic paralysis, Stammering,
Trigeminal neuralgia, Vertigo, Hydrocephalus, Neuropraxia, Sclerosis.
and Disorders of the autonomic nervous system ~ such as Heart beat, Blood pressure, Digestive activity.
a Diseases of Soft tissues, Muscles, Bones and Joints~ Arthritis, Spinal – low back ache, prolapsed disc, with or without sciatica, Cervical, Spondylosis, Frozen shoulder, Osteoarthritis of knee, hip joints, Cramps in calf muscles, Deformation, Degeneration.
a Respiratory disorders ~ Asthma, Bronchitis, Common cold, Cough, Laryngitis, Pertussis, Pharyngitis, Rhinitisallergic – blocked nose, expistaxis, Sinusitis.
a Cardiovascular disorders ~ Pain, Shock and collapse, Palpitation, Nausea,vomiting,hiccough,abdominal distension, Restlessness, Dyspnea, Hypo-Hyper tension, Angina pectorals.
a Gastrointestinal disorders~ Stomatitis, Toothache, Dysphagia, Hernia, Hiccup, Gastritis, Nausea, Vomiting, Dyspepsia, Flatulence, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Intestinal colic, Constipation, Haemorrhoids.
a Hepatic, Pancreatic disorders~ Hepatitis, Fibrosis of Liver, Pancreatitis, Splenomegaly.
a Digestive – Acidity, Loss of Appetite, Jaundice, Liver Enlargement.
a Genitourinary disorders~ Pyelitis, Nephritis, Hematuria, Renal colic, Cystitis, Retention of urine, Enuresis, Nocturnal enuresis.
a Gynecological disorders~ Amenorrhea, Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, Uterine bleeding, Fibroid, Leucorrhoea, Pelvic inflammations, Uterus prolapse, Hyperemesis, Lactation deficiency, Mastitis, Cyst, Sterility.
a Reproductive male organs – Enlarge Prostrate, Testis, Ejaculation.
a Nervous system~ Epilepsy, Parkinson’s, Spastic paralysis, Headaches, Insomnia, Vertigo, Encephalitis, Bells palsy.
a Skin disorders~ Non-healing wounds, Ulcers of the skin, Furunculosis, Acne, Urticaria, Lymphangitis, Erysipelas, Herpes zoster, Dermatitis, Vitiligo, Psoriasis.
a Ear disorders ~ Deafness, Tinnitus, Ear ache, Meniere’s disease, Vertigo, Travel sickness.
a Eye disorders ~ Conjunctivitis, Thermal burns of the eye, Stye, Myopia, Hypermetropia, Lacrimation, Itchy & Aching, Sclera, Optic nerve atrophy, Ophthalmoplegia.
a Endocrine disorders~ Sub-fertility, Masculinization symptoms in women, Goitre, Hormonal imbalance.
a Diabetes mellitus.
a Thyroid- Hyper or Hypo. PTH.
a Psychiatric disorders ~ Hysteria. Schizophrenia, Mental depression, Addictions – food,drugs,alcohol,smoking.
a Disorders of children~ Infantile convulsions, febrile fits, Epilepsy, Behaviour disorders, Nocturnal enuresis.
a PAIN control MANAGEMENT.
a HEAT stroke. WIND stroke. HEADACHES – frontal,temporal,parietal,vertical,occipital. SYNCOPE.
a Chronic KIDNEY disease.
a or problems related to Oncological, Ulcers.
a Even sure Weight Loss or Height Gain.
a or Rejuvenate the cells
a or even Bacterial, Transmitted or febrile diseases.
AsENERGY may go up-to any extent, and at any level, because of this it is possible to give CURE effect irrespective of level of disease.
To your well being, smile life. Enjoy yourself!

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/alternative-medicine-articles/anuria-cessation-of-urine-3291552.html


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Jun 032012
 
Squigle SLS Free Xylitol Toothpaste hosted by Nature's Provision:

Canker Sore Medicine

Anyone who suffers from canker sores knows that they can be incredibly painful. These small sores and ulcers inside the mouth can be so debilitating that they can interfere with a person’s ability to eat and drink. It has been sa 00004000 id that over half of the adult population will experience a canker sore at some point in their life, and while the medical community remains unclear as to what it is that causes canker sores, they do know that women tend to be affected more than men. It is thought that canker sores may be caused by stress, a change in nutrition, or even by the body’s own immune system, but whatever the reason, when a canker sore develops the only focus is on relief from the pain! This is where canker sore medicine comes in.

Without the use of canker sore medicine, they should heal on their own in approximately 10 days. However, 10 days is a long time to suffer, and for that reason numerous types of canker sore medicine and home remedies have been developed. Some medicines can cut the healing time to just a few days, and are able to offer relief from the pain almost immediately. Most people opt for a store bought, over the counter canker sore medicine. These usually come in a gel form, and are applied directly to the sore using your finger or a clean cotton swab. There are many such canker sore medicines available at your local drug store, and the cost is minimal. Typically, these canker sore medicines will need to be reapplied every few hours – the package instructions will inform you of how often to use their particular brand of canker sore medicine.

Other people prefer a more homeopathic form of canker sore medicine. One of the most common home remedies for canker sores is using a combination of equal parts of water and hydrogen peroxide and applying it directly to the sore. While this remedy helps to speed the healing process and keep the sore clean, it does little for pain relief and so it may be best to try it out on smaller, less painful sores first.

If you are having trouble finding a canker sore medicine that works for you, you might consider checking online. There are numerous remedies available and waiting to be shipped right to your door, at fairly low costs. The best one of these would be Canker Sores Begone, which protects and lets the canker heal while covered. Look for a canker sore medicine that promotes healing as well as manages pain, and you’ll find yourself feeling better almost immediately!

About the author: To learn more about cold sores, please visit MouthSore.net where you’ll learn about Abreva and much more, including canker sore relief.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/canker-sore-medicine-1273153.html

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the best treatment for recurrent stomatitis? What causes it?

    • ANSWER:
      For recurrent stomatitis the cause is unknown. Positive family history in about 1/3. Evidence supporting genetic basis. Other causes are stress, local trauma, food allergy, and in association with menstrual cycle. In children in association with fever and pharyngitis. In cyclical Neutropenia, HIV Infection. Crops of ulcers follow periods of emotional stress. Treatment. 1) Local: a)Alkaline mouth wash and local use of analgesic lozenges.b) Topical steroids. c) Topical antibiotic. d) Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice mouth wash 2) Systemic: a) steroids by mouth. Progesterone therapy. c) Tranquilisers.

  2. QUESTION:
    Recurrent mouth ulcers?
    For about 14 days now I have been suffering with mouth ulcers or what the doctors called apothous stomatitis..
    I have been living off of milk, vanilla milk shakes, and water because that is the only drinks berable enough to drink. I am also taking a bunch of medication to relieve my pain.

    This is my second time getting this infection and it always is very serious putting me out of school for weeks. So if you know any ways to cure it or help it never happen in the future that’d be great!

    thanks so much for the help.

    • ANSWER:

  3. QUESTION:
    What do you think is the worst human invention?
    My answer would be alcoholic drink.Here are the reasons why.The maximum number of deaths in the
    world related to any one particular cause is due to
    the consumption of alcohol. Millions of people die
    every year only because of intake of alcohol. I
    need not go into the details of all the ill-effects of
    alcohol since most of them are commonly
    known. Below is a simple list of few of the alcohol
    related illnesses:
    a. Cirrhosis of Liver is the most well known alcohol
    associated disease.
    b. Others are Cancer of Oesophagus, Cancer of
    Head and Neck, Cancer of Liver (Hepatoma),
    Cancer of Bowel, etc.
    c. Oesophagitis, Gastritis, Pancreatitis and Hepatitis
    are linked with alcohol consumption.
    d. Cardiomyopathy, Hypertension, Coronary
    Artherosclerosis, Angina and Heart Attacks are
    linked with heavy alcohol intakes.
    e. Strokes, Apoplexy, Fits and different types of
    Paralysis are linked with alcohol intake.
    f. Peripheral Neuropathy, Cortical Atrophy,
    Cerebellar Atrophy are well-known syndromes
    caused by alcohol consumption.
    g. Wernicke – Korsakoff syndrome with amnesia of
    recent events, confabulations and retainment of
    memory to old events with different types of
    paralysis are mainly due to thiamine deficiency
    due to excessive alcohol intake.
    h. Beriberi and other deficiencies are not uncommon
    among alcoholics. Even Pellagra occurs in
    alcoholics.
    i. Delerium Tremens is a serious complication that
    may occur during recurrent infection of alcoholics
    or post operatively. It also occurs during
    abstention as a sign of withdrawal effect. It is
    quite serious and may cause death even if treated
    in well equipped centres.
    j. Numerous Endocrine Disorders have been
    associated with alcoholism ranging from
    Myxodema to Hyperthyroidism and Florid
    Cushing Syndrome.
    k. Hematological ill effects are long and variable.
    Folic acid deficiency, however, is the most
    common manifestation of alcoholic abuse
    resulting in Macrocytic Anemia. Zeive’s syndrome
    is a triad of Hemolytic Anemia, Jaundice and
    Hyperlipaedemia that follows alcoholic binges.
    l. Thrombocytopenia and other platelet
    abnormalities are not rare in alcoholics.
    m. The commonly used tablet metronidazole (flagyl)
    interacts badly with alcohol.
    n. Recurrent infection is very common among
    chronic alcoholics. The resistance to disease and
    the immunological defense system are
    compromised by alcohol intake.
    o. Chest infections are notorious in alcoholics.
    Pneumonia, Lung Abcess, Emphysema and
    Pulmonary Tuberculosis are all common in
    alcoholics.
    p. During acute alcoholic intoxication, the drunk
    person usually vomits, the cough reflexes which
    are protective are paralysed. The vomitus thus
    easily pass to the lung causing Pneumonia or
    Lung Abscess. Occasionally it may even cause
    suffocation and death.
    q. The ill effects of alcohol consumption on women
    deserves special mention. Females are more
    vulnerable to alcohol-related Cirrhosis than men.
    During pregnancy alcohol consumption has a
    severe detrimental effect on the foetus. Foetal
    Alcohol Syndrome is being recognised more and
    more in the medical profession.
    r. Skin diseases are also related to alcohol
    indulgence.
    s. Eczema, Alopecia, Nail Dystrophy, Paronychia
    (infection around the nails) and Angular Stomatitis
    (inflammation of the angle of the mouth) are
    common diseases among alcoholics.

    • ANSWER:
      You are quite long winded.
      You seem to have a problem with drink. Don’t blame the drink. Blame the person that couldn’t control themselves with it. It is never the thing but the abuse of the thing.

      Answer to your question for me is Nukes, Cloning, & biological manipulation making super bugs etc.
      Those if unleashed would cause much more havoc than drink.

      Jesus drank. He change water into wine. Remember that.


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May 302012
 
 ... staining and are susceptible to vesicular stomatitis indiana strain

Aloe Vera – A Solution For Skin Diseases and Ulcerative Colitis

While Aloe is used in the treatment of several digestive disorders of all degrees of acuteness, from mild to moderate to severe, Aloe is most commonly used with great success in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Use of aloe has been suggested for both internal and external ailments. Externally it is used in the treatment of first-degree burns especially for quick recovery. Aloe vera gel is preferred to shrink warts and also reduce the pain involved in shingles. Psoriasis symptoms can be reduced with the use of aloe gel. Dental problems including bleeding gums and denture stomatitis can also be healed using Aloe vera.

Internally aloe is used to clear constipation and cleanse your bowel. Its antioxidant properties make aloe juice a miracle potion. European folk medicine uses aloe vera to cure heartburns and ulcers. There are suggestions that it can even cure diabetes though these are not scientifically proven. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients are significantly benefited by aloe vera. Accumulation of residue in the colon is ejected naturally by the regular use of aloe. Internal ulcers and other lesions are also healed by it. The soothing effects of aloe are known to help colitis, peptic ulcers and other irritations of the digestive tract. Acidity removal is one of the many other capabilities of Aloe vera. Its anti-inflammatory fatty acids such as alkalize digestive juices keep over acidity under control.

The benefits of Aloe vera are many. Nutritionally it contains Vitamins B1, B2, B6, C and various amino acids. Aloe also optimizes blood and lymphatic circulation and facilitates digestion. Aloe vera is also known for its skincare abilities. It increases the amount of oxygen available to the skin and thereby helps in the synthesis and strengthening of skin tissues. It is also popularly used in cleansing the skin. Another of its immense utilities is that it prevents tanning caused by the sun because of its anti-burning properties making it a skin care product par excellence.

Aloe Vera products have great medicinal value and can be used to cure skin diseases, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease etc. You can find out more about it at http://www.aloeelite.com.

About the author: Mike Bordon is a renowned SEO professional and author of many articles and e-books. Presently he is working as the editor of spotwriters. He is currently providing article writing service for many SEO firms.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/acne-articles/aloe-vera-a-solution-for-skin-diseases-and-ulcerative-colitis-2829599.html


May 222012
 
Herpes Simplex Mucositis in Neutropenic Patients: Clinical ...

Treat Herpes Virus With Organic Herpes Treatment

People today with genital herpes seem to possess spherical and numerous superficial ulcers that go together with gingivitis most from the time. You will find instances which the lesions do not appear within the mouth and when this time transpires the major unofficial genital herpes is mistakenly referred to as impetigo or even a bacterial infection. In most circumstances, the frequent mouth ulcers do look like intraoral genital herpes however it doesn’t present into a vesicular stage. Most of the time adults which have uncommon type of herpes are incredibly difficult to identify. If we’d compare oral genital herpes and genital herpes simplex virus with regards to ease in diagnosing, genital herpes simplex virus may be the one particular that is certainly far trickier to identify, this can be due to the fact that individuals which can be contaminated by HSV-2 don’t have any classical signs and symptoms. Very good to know that organic herpes treatment is now here to offer us remedy from herpes simplex virus.

Controlling your diet plan is included in performing organic herpes treatment. You will find some foods that you want to steer clear of for example all varieties of caffeine, some nuts besides the hemp as well as the flax seeds; you have to prohibit yourself from raisins, gelatin, cereal grains and carob. An ultimate diet regime for reduced sugar with moderation from the amount of whole grain food items is really a must. The foods that you should constantly take are avocados and olives, foods which can be quite rich in omega fatty acids, brewer’s yeast, selenium supplements and natural and organic yogurt. You really should also prevent meals which are wealthy in L-lysine.

You will find loads of antiviral drugs out there that assist in curing genital herpes an infection, nonetheless, this acquire time to process all through the digestive tract to acquire a complete systematic impact on herpes simplex virus. We cannot truly trust these capsules due to the fact it takes time to take impact and the cure for your herpes simplex virus just isn’t totally blown. All of these modern chemical drugs that happen to be stated to treat herpes simplex virus have poor efficacy and has a lot of aspect effects as well as the drug resistance of some medication become a great deal much more really serious. For these causes, lots of people today begin to coach their selves on organic herpes treatment. These organic solutions awakened us for the calling of coming back again to nature.

To verify STD herpes simplex virus, laboratory testing is frequently applied. These laboratory checks includes culturing of your virus, directing fluorescent antibody studies in order to detect virus, skin biopsy, execution of your polymerase chain reactions to examine the presence of viral DNA. These procedures are excessively standard, highly sensitive and do price a penny that is one among the causes why a lot is discourage to use it in scientific procedures. A test for the antibodies of HSV is named Serological tests, this really is hardly ever useful to diagnose herpes simplex virus but this will not be frequently employed in clinical methods however it can be vital for epidemiological studies. Instead of undergoing these tests, quite a few are shifting to make use of organic herpes treatment because they are much cheaper compare to the scientific solutions.

The number of herpes sufferers is constantly growing day by day, this maybe the reason why the healthcare world is more pushed to produce a formulation that can give remedy on this infection. The huge challenge would be to produce a method which will not just eradicate the signs but will also remove the pathogen at the same time and on a quick way. It is incredibly achievable by utilizing distinctive biological qualities by way of employing potent substances. The outbreak with the second sort of herpes simplex virus simplex pathogen will appear in just two weeks right after someone becomes infected and this will last for several weeks. More and more people are shifting to organic herpes treatment now; this is mainly because these kinds of solutions are less expensive and more efficient.

Herpes are commonly situated on delicate locations in our body that is why an individual that suffers this illness must take additional care and be quite cautious to the sorts of cure to be utilized. Once and for all, HSV is one of the trickiest infections to combat for, mainly because right after the outbreak occurs the HSV can now lodge deeply beneath the epidermis, goes down to the sensory nerves and then becomes dormant and can cause the patient to fall into self satisfaction after which it goes active again in not as much than 21 nights. Thanks to organic herpes treatment which is readily available now for use, this kind of re 00004000 medy exhibits plenty of possibilities in fighting this illness.

The initial step in carrying out organic herpes treatment is pity. This method does not simply imply that you are forgiving the person who you’ve contacted and get the herpes but to forgive yourself also. In the case you would remain to be in shame, in anger, in fear and in resentment, then you are depriving yourself to recover on its own. You don’t have to look down yourself by considering that due to the fact that you have herpes simplex virus you might be no longer appealing and lovely, no longer moral and no longer a worthy person just like just before. You don’t have to be pity for yourself, choose the very best organic herpes treatment that might work for your situation and everything will be ok within the lengthy run.

With plenty of disease today, plenty of holistic medicines grow up and because of this medical community acknowledges more and more that the therapy really should be stressed within the overall view of health. You really should always be reminded which the treatment method commence by your own therapeutic capability, the way to treat an ailment is via the affected person himself and the remedy that you simply would gain is a lot more than the backer. You will find numerous remedies that must be applied and these are quite generally included to the usual remedy of your conventional Chinese medication. The regular medication greatly stresses that the principle of therapy is in the general regulation as well as the center of remedy need to be in fostering and mobilizing our human system. Organic herpes treatment includes this concept in individual therapeutic, and that is why organic therapies are finer than chemical therapies.

Generally, the HVS infection has kinds which are known to your entire body part on wherever it really is inflicted. For an occasion, the genital herpes that may be found to the face or mouth is termed as oral HSV simplex virus or otherwise known as cold sores. On the other hand, the herpes which is located on the HSV virus tract is referred to as genital herpes simplex virus. The signs and symptoms that happen before the appearance of herpetic lesions is named as Prodromal signs, this aid differentiate HSV signs or symptoms from the other indicators that is comparable to other problems including allergic stomatitis. In the other hand, main oroficial genital herpes is recognized via scientific examination of the individual which has no earlier background on possessing lesions or make contact with having a individual contaminated by HSV-1. Today, you do not need to be concerned on how you are able to heal this infection because organic herpes treatment is already right here.

Considerably from what we recognize, genital herpes infection is extremely common nowadays. Sad but true, treating genital herpes is one of many most challenging dermatological treatments to achieve with. Most from the readily available cures for genital herpes now only relieves the indicators but doesn’t remove the infection. Today, numerous science specialists are continuously creating genital herpes treat, nonetheless it seems which the window for that opportunity is extremely little. When a person is infected by HSV, the said herpes will move automatically to your sensory nerves inside ganglia and when the HSV is already there, it then seems to reside there. When this thing transpires the possibility to cure herpes virus is no longer possible. Discovering therapy that can give remedy to HSV simplex virus is seriously extremely tough. It is possible to search inside the net the list of organic herpes treatment; you will discover that these therapies are less costly and far more effective.

About the Author:
Forces of Nature is the premier provider of organic herpes treatment. Visit them at http://www.fonworld.org/herpes-treatment.

Source: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Treat-Herpes-Virus-With-Organic-Herpes-Treatment/1677371


May 112012
 
Stomatitis and other oral infections (Professional Guide to Diseases ...

Diagnosis for Herpes

Primary orofacial herpes is readily identified by clinical examination of persons with no previous history of lesions and contact with an individual with known HSV-1 infection. The appearance and distribution of sores in these individuals typically presents as multiple, round, superficial oral ulcers, accompanied by acute gingivitis. Adults with non-typical presentation are more difficult to diagnose.

Prodromal symptoms that occur before the appearance of herpetic lesions help differentiate HSV symptoms from the similar symptoms of other disorders, such as allergic stomatitis. When lesions do not appear inside the mouth primary orofacial herpes is sometimes mistaken for impetigo, a bacterial infection. Common mouth ulcers (aphthous ulcer) also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage.

Genital herpes can be more difficult to diagnose than oral herpes since most HSV-2-infected persons have no classical symptoms. Further confusing diagnosis, several other conditions resemble genital herpes, including lichen planus, atopic dermatitis, and urethritis. Laboratory testing is often used to confirm a diagnosis of genital herpes.

Laboratory tests include: culture of the virus, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) studies to detect virus, skin biopsy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for presence of viral DNA. Although these procedures produce highly sensitive and specific diagnoses, their high costs and time constraints discourage their regular use in clinical practice.

Serological tests for antibodies to HSV are rarely useful to diagnosis and not routinely used in clinical practice, but are important in epidemiological studies. Serologic assays cannot differentiate between antibodies generated in response to a genital versus or an oral HSV infection, and as such cannot confirm the site of infection. Absence of antibody to HSV-2 does not exclude genital infection because of the increasing incidence of genital infections caused by HSV-1.

Cures for herpes only relieve the symptoms but do not eradicate the virus. HSV infections are often referred to in terms of the body part afflicted. For example, herpes that occur around the mouth and face are commonly known as or oral herpes (also known as cold sores), herpes that infect the genital tract are referred to as genital herpes. Herpes cures are being developed but so far, the window of opportunity for their effective use is small.

After a person becomes infected with HSV, the virus moves to sensory nerves in the ganglia. Once there, it seems to reside, at which point herpes cure is no longer feasible. Finding the cure for herpes is really tough. Unlike HPV (the virus that causes warts), which is satisfied and content with simply nestling into skin tissue, the herpes virus opts to burrow deep into the system. Cures for herpes would have to do the same.

The virus eventually reactivates, resurfacing on the skin at regular or irregular intervals. On reactivation, it travels down the ganglia back to the original site of the infection, or in close proximity, and causes an outbreak. Outbreaks generally cause pronounced trauma and distress, especially for genital herpes. Cure of the symptoms then becomes a necessity.

Herpes infections are much more common than most people realize. Yet strangely, herpes cures are among the most difficult dermatological treatments to have success with. Sure, there are antiviral drugs available, which can help, but they take time to process through the digestive tract to have a full systemic effect on herpes. A cure is needed immediately once an outbreak appears. Pills often take time to take effect and are not a cure for herpes virus infections when full blown.

HSVCurative is used specifically to treat HSV1 and HSV2 infections and acts as a curative agent against both these strains of herpes. It exhibits a pronounced anti-herpetic activity against HSV1 and HSV2 and, unlike other cures for herpes, actually kills these viruses upon exposure regardless of location on the body.

HSVCurative contains certified organic medicinal plant extracts and antiviral essential oils which cause cellular death to HSV1 and HSV2 in scientific studies. HSVCurative has a rather remarkable array of pharmacological and biochemical properties which inactivate and destroy the herpes virus for unprecedented results compared to other cures for herpes.

Very recent studies using advanced DNA techniques have shown that HSVCurative extracts indeed destroy HSV1 and HSV2, the common causes of oral and genital herpes. A cure of these viruses has been elusive until recently. To learn more, please go to http://www.bcured.net.

About the author: staff of Nature Power Company, which is a network company dedicated to promoting customers’ websites and developing softwares. You can go to the following websites to learn more about our natural organic products. http://www.bcured.net http://www.naturespharma.org

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/medicine-articles/diagnosis-for-herpes-1444120.html

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Best treatment for cold sores (herpetic stomatitis)?
    From what I’ve heard, all those creams and patches only shorten the healing process for a day.

    Is there any better treatment, or anything to stop it from itching?

    BTW
    I did NOT get it from sex. I’m only 15. I’ve had them since I was 6 months old. Someone who had herpetic stomatitis kissed me when I was a baby.

    • ANSWER:
      If you get them frequently, you could get a prescription for Valtrex which will help prevent outbreaks. Abreva does help with the itching and makes it heal slightly faster.

  2. QUESTION:
    Best treatment for cold sores (herpetic stomatitis)?
    From what I’ve heard, all those creams and patches only shorten the healing process for a day.

    Is there any better treatment, or anything to stop it from itching?
    I didn’t get it from sex. I’ve had them since I was 6 months old. Someone who had herpetic stomatitis kissed me when I was a baby.

    • ANSWER:


May 082012
 
Enterogenous Malabsorption Syndrome (Sprue Syndrome) - Netter Medical ...

Complete Information on Aphthous Stomatitis With Treatment and Prevention

Aphthous stomatitis too known as canker sores, are among the almost popular oral mucosal lesions physicians and dentists respect. Although the procedure is self-limited, in some individuals, the ulcer action is nearly continual. Ulcers are big and profound, they may fuse, and they frequently have a raised and improper edge. This kind almost usually affects the lips, the tender palate, and the fauces. In children and in some grownup communities who are affected, the incidence of aphthous stomatitis is high in feminine individuals than in masculine individuals. The precise reason of this disease is not known. There are many factors that are thought to be involved with the growth of canker sores, such as weakened exempt structure, sure allergies, viruses and bacterium, impoverished nourishment and sure medications. These ulcers are not infectious and cannot be scatter from one kid to another.

Aphthous stomatitis insignificant occurs on the labial and buccal mucosa and on the flooring of the lip. The aphthae lean to happen in clusters that may comprise of tens or hundreds of microscopic ulcers. Artificial sugars, such as those establish in diet cola and sugarless gum, have been reported as causes of aphthous ulcers as easily. They can too be linked to an increased consumption of acids such as ascorbic acid or citric acid. Clusters may be tiny and localized, or they may be distributed throughout the tender mucosa of the oral cavity. Children from higher socioeconomic groups may be affected more than those from reduced socioeconomic groups. Aphthous ulcers happen solely on non-keratinized, movable mucosa, such as buccal and lingual mucosa, the flooring of the lip, and the tender palate. Aphthous stomatitis occurs on freely movable mucosa which does not overlie ivory.

Aphthous stomatitis is normally diagnosed based on a comprehensive story and physiological testing. The finish of handling for aphthous stomatitis is to assist fall the hardship of the symptoms. Pain alleviation can be obtained with the consumption of a topical anesthetic broker, such as benzocaine in Orabase. In much serious cases, the consumption of a higher effectiveness topical steroid planning, such as fluocinonide, betamethasone or clobetasol, placed immediately on the lesion shortens healing moment and the size of the ulcer. Aphthous stomatitis are treated by using a kind of agents for palliative, prophylactic, and therapeutic purposes. Many of the treatments are used without significant investigation demonstrating curative results. Other topical preparations that have been shown to fall the healing moment of insignificant aphthous stomatitis lesions include amlexanox paste and topical tetracycline.Tincture of benzoin can be used as a protectant for recurring aphthous ulcers, by forming a layer over the sore and protecting it from further irritation.

About the author: Juliet Cohen writes articles for health doctor. She also writes articles for haircut styles and beauty tips.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/complete-information-on-aphthous-stomatitis-with-treatment-and-prevention-399156.html

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    PFAPA SYNDROME-PFAPA (periodic fevers with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis) syndrome. Whats is?
    my daughter has PFAPA (periodic fevers with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis) syndrome. Whats is this?

    • ANSWER:
      PFAPA syndrome is a relatively common periodic fever in children.It typically starts in early childhood (between ages 2 and 5 yr).Febrile(i.e fever) episodes last 3 to 6 days and recur about every 28 days. The syndrome causes fatigue, chills, and occasionally abdominal pain and headache, as well as fever, pharyngitis(swollen inflamed pharynx), aphthous ulcers(ulcers in mouth), and lymphadenopathy(swollen lymph nodes). Patients are healthy between episodes, and growth is normal.

      Patients tend to outgrow this syndrome without sequelae i.e with age, her symptoms would subside.. The doctor would probably prescribe glucocorticoids and cimetidine.. a tonsillectomy may or may not be needed..

      hope it helps…

  2. QUESTION:
    Why do I always get Aphthous stomatitis? How to prevent it.?

    lol its also called canker sores or aphthous ulcers

    • ANSWER:
      sounds like a greek name lol..

  3. QUESTION:
    Anyone tried Aphthasol (RX) for canker sores (aphthous stomatitis) if so what results did you get?
    My doctor prescribed lidocaine 2% for the pain over a year ago. However if this new RX is worth it by shortening the outbreaks I’d be all for it. I regularly get these – one that once a month.
    I suffer breakouts more than once a month & the doctor has prescribed 2% lidocaine for the pain.
    Appreciate the answer… I’m one of those *over the edge* folk… I get them more than 90% & I actually have chunks missing in my tongue.

    I need more than the normal things that do work to a certain extent … I do the alcohol, peroxide, Benedryl, maylox, baking soda, etc………………..

    I’m one of *those* that live with this nearly daily. Thank you – I just saw there was a new RX APHTHASOL & prayed it was a small answer… One can hope.

    Thanks for your help…

    • ANSWER:
      They’re usually caused from a bacteria. Try putting rubbing alcohol via a q-tip on them at the first sign you’re getting them. The trick is to get them early! It works for me. If you develop them, rinse your mouth with warm water with sea salt (don’t use regular salt). Some people have canker sore onset from lemons or other acidic fruits or when they bite or get a cut in their mouth; that usually causes me to get them. Good luck!

  4. QUESTION:
    How do fellow canker sore sufferers treat their lesions?
    Here is my own remedy
    1- Ok the first step sounds hokey, but I believe you have to be nourish yourself so the first step is to drink alot of water and take a multivitamin.
    2- Apply hydrogen peroxide w q-tip to the sore 2-3 times per day letting the sore bubble for 30 seconds then rinsing out.
    3- Apply “aphthasol” (prescribed) a few times a day after peroxide.
    4- Get plenty of sleep.

    I say that this method works and by that I don’t solely mean pain reduction, although that is a benefit, but also shortening the duration of the sore from over a week to just a few days.
    BTW I do get chronic canker sores ( aphthous stomatitis)

    • ANSWER:
      I feel your pain…literally…I’ve got one now but it’s almost pain free and healing now only after 3 days…

      What I do is take lysine 500mg/day to try and prevent them or if you feel 1 about to break out (due to stress or staying up late), I up my dose to 1500mg/day. It has reduced the duration of my canker sores from a week+ to 2-3 days.

  5. QUESTION:
    need help with these 3 true/false questions? for 10 points?
    Here they are:

    ___ 41. Hypoalimentation is the process of taking in more nutrients than the body needs. Is it f?
    ___ 42. The pancreas has exocrine and endocrine glands. Is it t?
    ___ 43. Canker sores are aphthous stomatitis. Is it t?

    Thanks for helping out, and here are your 10 points!

    • ANSWER:
      F
      T
      F–aphthous ucler


May 042012
 
Sucampo Pharmaceuticals, Inc. - FORM 8-K - EX-99.1 - EXHIBIT 99.1 ...

Colon Cancer Surgery Procedure

Vol: 345: 1128-1129. October 2001), more than half of all new cancers in the US occur in patients 65 years of age or older. Colon Cancer Surgery Procedure Similarly about two thirds to three fourth of colorectal cancer cases occur in this elderly age group and three fourths of them die of the disease. In another report, published in the same journal (Vol: 345: 1091-1097), entitled: aA pooled analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colon cancer in elderly patientsa Dr. Daniel Sargent and colleagues analysed data from 3,351 patients and compared the pe 00004000 rformance of patients in four different age groups. They concluded that:

1. aSelected elderly patients with colon cancer can receive the same benefita from chemotherapy as their younger counterparts.

2. The five-year overall survival was 71% for those who received chemotherapy, and 64% for those who did not receive chemotherapy.

3. The toxic effects of the therapy were nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis and leucopenia (i.e., lowering of white blood cells). The toxic effects in those above 75 years old were not increased compared to other age groups.

Question: The difference of benefits between chemotherapy (5-FU + leucovorin or 5-FU
+ levamisole) and no chemotherapy was 7%. This benefit of increased survival comes with toxic side effects. While the younger patients might be able to tolerate the side effects, I wonder if the elderly would want to go through such asufferings.a To the oncologists and researchers, the results were astatistically significant,a but from the viewpoint of patients, I wonder if it worth it?

Theodore, J. I. & Lamont, E.B (in: Effectiveness of adjuvant fluorouracil in clinical practice: A population-based cohort study of elderly patients with stage III colon cancer. J. of Clinical Oncology. October 2002. Vol: 20: 3992-3998) wrote:

aAt five years, 52.7% of the elderly, stage III colon patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU were alive compared to only 40.7% of those untreated patients.a

Questions: If you are old and had a surgery for your Stage 3 colon, but decided not to go for chemotherapy — would you die soon after that? The answer is NO. The data of this research shows that you can still be alive after five years even if you do not undergo chemotherapy. Think about this carefully: for every 100 elderly patients who are subjected to chemotherapy, only 12 of them will benefit from the treatment. This means that 88 elderly patients have to endure the side effects of chemotherapy and they do not benefit from the treatment.

Yang, T.S. and colleagues (in: Phase II study of a weekly 8-hour 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin infusion for patients with advanced colorectal cancer: dose adjusted according to its toxicity. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2001. Vol:31: 610-615) studied 26 patients with unresectable, metastastatic or local recurrence colorectal cancer. Patients were treated with 5-FU + leucovorin. The results of their result were:

Lung Cancer Secrets Revealed Click here

1. The study commenced in June 1998, but by December 2000, i.e., one and half years later, only 3 patients were alive, meaning 23 of the 26 patients or 88% were dead. They survived for 1.5 to 28.3 months (median survival = 12.1 months).

2. The overall survival rate was 53.8% after 1 year, and 11.5% after 2 years.

3. The most frequent side effects noted were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and mucositis.

4. Hand-foot syndrome occurred in 11.5% of patients.

5. Fatigue or asthenia occurred in 57.7% of patients.

6. The study was terminated because the anticipated response rate was not achievable as expected.

Questions: Do the results of this study done in Taipei, Taiwan, not reflect the agonizing experiences of most cancer patients who had undergone chemotherapy? Are we made to believe that chemotherapy is good for colorectal cancer when 88% were dead 1.5 years after undergoing chemotherapy?

I often tell this to cancer patients: How much longer you live is not important. How you live while alive is the crux of the issue. What is the point of being alive when you have to spend most of your time going in and out of the hospital or enduring the side effects of the treatment?

lung cancer treatment breakthroughs Click here

About the author: lung cancer best treatment Click here

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/cancer-articles/colon-cancer-surgery-procedure-1691230.html


Apr 212012
 

Angular Chelitis- Overview and Symptoms of Angular Chelitis

A common problem occurring on the corners of the mouth is angular chelitis. It starts like a small rash and slowly cracks and fissures develop. The exact reasons for the occurrence are still to be found. You can see this condition in children as well as adults. In this article let us have a better understanding about angular chelitis.

What is angular chelitis?

Angular chelitis is defined as an inflammation at labial commissures ( which means at the corners of the mouth ). Though the condition is not life threatening it can leave you in pain for many days. In fact there are cases of real life people whose condition continued for months together and in one case that I read, the person had it for almost five years. So this means that the condition can cause trouble to you for a good time if you don’t start the angular cheilitis treatment early.

Various causes for the formation of angular chelitis

The reasons behind this condition have not been found exactly till now. But some proposed reasons according to studies are iron deficiency, candidiasis, malnutrition, Glucagonoma etc. People who have diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism are also at the risk of developing angular chelitis. Some other causes include

1) accumulation of saliva at the corners of mouth which help fungus and yeast to grow

2) licking of the corners of mouth

3) fixing the dentures in a wrong manner

Symptoms of angular chelitis

If you have angular chelitis you can observe some of the symptoms like

1)cracks at the corners of the mouth which will hurt depending upon severity

2)splitting due to wide opened mouth which may result in bleeding

3)bumps are also observed sometimes

4)the skin gives a dry and flaky appearance

Angular chelitis is not harmful but it may give you sleepless nights, embarrassment in public because of the way they look at you and may continue for a long time. Many times people give you names which hurt you but do not take those things seriously. This may result in stress and tension which will affect your health.

About the author: You can find about the angular chelitis cure and treatment at Angular Chelitis Treatment

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/skin-care-articles/angular-chelitis-overview-and-symptoms-of-angular-chelitis-285629.html


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Apr 152012
 
 ... Vincenti from Case of Ulcerative Stomatitis (X 1200) (Todd

Owner’s Guide to Mouth Rot in Iguanas

Mouth rot in iguanas is also known as stomatitis. This condition is characterized by inflammation of the mouth. This usually causes swelling and bleeding of the oral tissues. So, what exactly causes stomatitis in iguanas?

Causes

Most reptiles develop mouth rot because of stress, which weakens their immune system and opens them up to infection. This stress can be because of improper temperatures, lighting, or an infection or parasites. The condition can also occur is your lizard is fed an improper diet, espe 00004000 cially one deficient in vitamin C. Besides bacteria, viruses and fungi can also cause this condition.

Signs

In its earliest stages, stomatitis causes swelling of the mouth and excessive salivation. As the disease progresses, the swelling increases and the gums begin to bleed. If nothing is done about it, the swelling can eventually get so bad that your iguana won’t be able to close his mouth.

Mouth rot in iguanas can cause many problems if left untreated. Your reptile may experience frequent eye infections and permanent tooth loss. If a bacterial infection is the underlying cause, it may travel to the lungs and cause pneumonia.

Diagnosis

It’s important that the veterinarian determines the exact bacterium of this condition. He will need to take a biopsy or swab of the mouth. Some types of bacterium are resistant to certain medications. If a specific type isn’t identified, any prescribed medication may not get rid of the infection.

Treatment

Fortunately, mouth rot in iguanas is relatively easy to cure when caught early enough. First, pus will need to be cleaned out of the mouth. Fluids, vitamins, and food will also probably need to be provided. Your iguana will then need to take a course of antibiotics to clear the infection.

However, all cases of stomatitis aren’t so easy to treat. If the condition has already progressed, the tissues of the mouth may be damaged quite bad. Your iguana may need to undergo surgery to repair the problem.

About the author: There is much you probably need to learn about caring for iguanas properly. Fortunately for you, green-iguana-care.com provides everything you need. So, come by today to start learning about a range of topics like how to tell if you have a sick iguana.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/pets-articles/owners-guide-to-mouth-rot-in-iguanas-828868.html


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Apr 012012
 
Ringworm ( Dermatophytosis ) is a skin disease caused by fungi found ...

Acne Vulgaris

Terminology

Different types of Acne Vulgaris: A: Cystic acne on the face, B: Subsiding tropical acne of trunk, C: Extensive acne on chest and shoulders.

The term acne comes from a corruption of the Greek (acne in the sense of a skin eruption) in the writings of Atius Amidenus. Used by itself, the term “acne” refers to the presence of pustules and papules. The most common form of acne is known as “acne vulgaris”, meaning “common acne”. Many teenagers get this type of acne. Use of the term “acne vulgaris” implies the presence of comedones.
The term “acne rosacea” is a synonym for rosacea, however some individuals may have almost no acne comedones associated with their rosacea and prefer therefore the term rosacea. Chloracne is associated with exposure to polyhalogenated compounds.

Causes of acne

Acne develops as a result of blockages in follicles. Hyperkeratinization and formation of a plug of keratin and sebum (a microcomedo) is the earliest change. Enlargement of sebaceous glands and an increase in sebum production occur with increased androgen (DHEA-S) production at adrenarche. The microcomedo may enlarge to form an open comedone (blackhead) or closed comedone (whitehead). Whiteheads are the direct result of sebaceous glands becoming clogged with sebum, a naturally occurring oil, and dead skin cells. In these conditions the naturally occurring largely commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes can cause inflammation, leading to inflammatory lesions (papules, infected pustules, or nodules) in the dermis around the microcomedo or comedone, which results in redness and may result in scarring or hyperpigmentation.

Primary causes

A 16 year-old teenager with acne on his cheek.

Acne is known to be partly hereditary, but no particular genetic cause has been identified. Acne is not contagious or infectious. Several factors are known to be linked to acne:

Family/Genetic history. The tendency to develop acne runs in families. For example, school-age boys with acne often have other members in their family with acne as well. A family history of acne is associated with an earlier occurrence of acne and an increased number of retentional acne lesions.

Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles and puberty. During puberty, an increase in male sex hormones called androgens cause the follicular glands to grow larger and make more sebum.

Inflammation, skin irritation or scratching of any sort will activate inflammation.

Stress. While the connection between acne and stress has been debated, scientific research indicates that “increased acne severity” is “significantly associated with increased stress levels.” The National Institutes of Health (USA) list stress as a factor that “can cause an acne flare.” A study of adolescents in Singapore “observed a statistically significant positive correlation [] between stress levels and severity of acne.”

Hyperactive sebaceous glands, secondary to the three hormone sources above.

Bacteria in the pores. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium that causes acne. In-vitro resistance of P. acnes to commonly used antibiotics has been increasing.

Use of anabolic steroids.

Exposure to certain chemical compounds. Chloracne is particularly linked to toxic exposure to dioxins, namely Chlorinated dioxins.[citation needed]

Acne on an arm.

Several hormones have been linked to acne: the androgens testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I).

Development of acne vulgaris in later years is uncommon, although this is the age group for Rosacea which may have similar appearances. True acne vulgaris in adult women may be a feature of an underlying condition such as pregnancy and disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome or the rare Cushing’s syndrome. Menopause-associated acne occurs as production of the natural anti-acne ovarian hormone estradiol fails at menopause. The lack of estradiol also causes thinning hair, hot flashes, thin skin, wrinkles, vaginal dryness, and predisposes to osteopenia and osteoporosis as well as triggering acne (known as acne climacterica in this situation).

Diet

Chocolate

The popular belief that chocolate intake, in and of itself, is a cause of acne is not supported by scientific studies. As discussed below, various studies point not to chocolate, but to the high glycemic nature of certain foods containing simple carbohydrates as a cause of acne. Chocolate itself has a low glycemic index.

Milk

Recently, three epidemiological studies from the same group of scientists found an association between acne and consumption of partially skimmed milk, instant breakfast drink, sherbet, cottage cheese, and cream cheese. The researchers hypothesize that the association may be caused by hormones (such as several sex hormones and bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)) or even iodine present in cow milk.

Carbohydrates

The long-held belief that there is no link between diets high in refined sugars and processed foods, and acne, has recently been challenged. The previous belief was based on earlier studies (some using chocolate and Coca-Cola) that were methodologically flawed. The recent low glycemic-load hypothesis postulates that rapidly digested carbohydrate foods (such as soft drinks, sweets, white bread) produce an overload in blood glucose (hyperglycemia) that stimulates the secretion of insulin, which in turn triggers the release of IGF-1. IGF-1 has direct effects on the pilosebaceous unit (and insulin at high concentrations can also bind to the IGF-1 receptor) and has been shown to stimulate hyperkeratosis and epidermal hyperplasia. These events facilitate acne formation. Sugar consumption might also influence the activity of androgens via a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin concentration.

In support of this hypothesis, a randomized controlled trial of a low glycemic-load diet improved acne and reduced weight, androgen activity and levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. High IGF-1 levels and mild insulin resistance (which causes higher levels of insulin) had previously been observed in patients with acne. High levels of insulin and acne are also both features of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

According to this hypothesis, the absence of acne in some non-Westernized societies could be explained by the low glycemic index of these cultures’ diets. It is possible that genetic reasons account for there being no acne in these populations, although similar populations (such as South American Indians or Pacific Islanders) do develop acne. Note also that the populations studied consumed no milk or other dairy products.

Further research is necessary to establish whether a reduced consumption of high-glycemic foods, or treatment that results in increased insulin sensitivity (like metformin) can significantly alleviate acne, though consumption of high-glycemic foods should in any case be kept to a minimum, for general health reasons. Avoidance of “junk food” with its high fat and sugar content is also recommended.

Vitamins A and E

Studies have shown that newly diagnosed acne patients tend to have lower levels of vitamin A circulating in their bloodstream than those who are acne free. In addition people with severe acne also tend to have lower blood levels of vitamin E.

Hygiene

Acne is not caused by dirt. This misconception probably comes from the fact that blackheads look like dirt stuck in the openings of pores. The black color is not dirt but simply oxidized keratin. In fact, the blockages of keratin that cause acne occur deep within the narrow follicle channel, where it is impossible to wash them away. These plugs are formed by the failure of the cells lining, the duct, to separate and flow to the surface in the sebum created there by the body. Built-up oil of the skin can block the passages of these pores, so standard washing of the face could wash off old oil and help unblock the pores.

Treatments

Available treatments

There are many products available for the treatment of acne, many of which are without any scientifically proven effects. Generally speaking, successful treatments show little improvement within the first two weeks, instead taking a period of approximately three months to improve and start flattening out.[citation needed] Many treatments that promise big improvements within two weeks are likely to be largely disappointing.[citation needed] However, short bursts of cortisone can give very quick results, and other treatments can rapidly improve some active spots, but usually not all active spots.[citation needed]

Modes of improvement are not necessarily fully understood but in general treatments are believed to work in at least 4 different ways (with many of the best treatments providing multiple simultaneous effects):

normalising shedding into the pore to prevent blockage

killing Propionibacterium acnes

anti-inflammatory effects

hormonal manipulation

A combination of treatments can greatly reduce the amount and severity of acne in many cases. Those treatments that are most effective tend to have greater potential for side effects and need a greater degree of monitoring, so a step-wise approach is often taken. Many people consult with doctors when deciding which treatments to use, especially when considering using any treatments in combination. There are a number of treatments that have been proven effective:

Benzoyl peroxide cream.

Hygiene

Proper washing and skin care can help to remove bacteria and oils which cause acne. Some anecdotal reports indicate placing a clean towel over one’s pillow each night can help prevent contaminating the pillow with the bacteria that causes acne, and reintroducing it to the face. Additionally, cleaning the hands before touching the affected area can prevent transmission of the bacteria from one part of the body to another.[citation needed]

Topical bactericidals

Widely available OTC bactericidal products containing benzoyl peroxide may be used in mild to moderate acne. The gel or cream containing benzoyl peroxide is applied, twice daily, into the pores over the affected region. Bar soaps or washes may also be used and vary from 2% to 10% in strength. In addition to its therapeutic effect as a keratolytic (a chemical that dissolves the keratin plugging the pores) benzoyl peroxide also prevents new lesions by killing P. acnes. In one study, roughly 70% of participants using a 10% benzoyl peroxide solution experienced a reduction in acne lesions after six weeks. Unlike antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide has the advantage of being a strong oxidizer and thus does not appear to generate bacterial resistance. However, it routinely causes dryness, local irritation and redness. A sensible regimen may include the daily use of low-concentration (2.5%) benzoyl peroxide preparations, combined with suitable non-comedogenic moisturisers to help avoid overdrying the skin.

Care must be taken when using benzoyl peroxide, as it can very easily bleach any fabric or hair it comes in contact with.

Other antibacterials that have been used include triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate. Though these treatments are often less effective, they also have fewer side-effects.

Products containing azeleic acid are also used in the treatment of P. acnes. It is available in the United States as a 20% concentration and does not generate bacterial resistance.

Prescription-strength benzoyl peroxide preparations do not necessarily differ with regard to the maximum concentration of the active ingredient (10%), but the drug is made available dissolved in a vehicle that more deeply penetrates the pores of the skin.

Topical antibiotics

Externally applied antibiotics such as erythromycin, clindamycin or tetracycline kill the bacteria that are harbored in the blocked follicles. While topical use of antibiotics is equally as effective as oral use, this method avoids possible side effects including upset stomach and drug interactions (e.g. it will not affect use of the oral contraceptive pill), but may prove inefficient to apply over larger areas than just the face alone.

Oral antibiotics

Oral antibiotics used to treat acne include erythromycin or one of the tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, the better absorbed oxytetracycline, or one of the once daily doxycycline, minocycline, or lymecycline). Trimethoprim is also sometimes used (off-label use in UK). However, reducing the P. acnes bacteria will not, in itself, do anything to reduce the oil secretion and abnormal cell behaviour that is the initial cause of the blocked follicles. Additionally the antibiotics are becoming less and less useful as resistant P. acnes are becoming more common. Acne may return soon after the end of treatmentays later in the case of topical applications, and weeks later in the case of oral antibiotics. Furthermore, side effects of tetracycline antibiotics can include yellowing of the teeth and an imbalance of gut flora, so are only recommended after topical products have been ruled out.

It has been found that sub-antimicrobial doses of antibiotics such as minocycline also improve acne. It is believed that minocycline’s anti-inflammatory effect also prevents acne.

Hormonal treatments

In females, acne can be improved with hormonal treatments. The common combined estrogen/progestogen methods of hormonal contraception have some effect, but the antiandrogen, Cyproterone, in combination with an oestrogen (Diane 35) is particularly effective at reducing androgenic hormone levels. Diane-35 is not available in the USA, but a newer oral contraceptive containing the progestin drospirenone is now available with fewer side effects than Diane 35 / Dianette. Both can be used where blood tests show abnormally high levels of androgens, but are effective even when this is not the case. Along with this, treatment with low dose spironolactone can have anti-androgenetic properties, especially in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

If a pimple is large and/or does not seem to be affected by other treatments, a dermatologist may administer an injection of cortisone directly into it, which will usually reduce redness and inflammation almost immediately. This has the effect of flattening the pimple, thereby making it easier to cover up with makeup, and can also aid in the healing process. Side effects are minimal, but may include a temporary whitening of the skin around the injection point; and occasionally a small depression forms, which may persist, although often fills eventually. This method also carries a much smaller risk of scarring than surgical removal.

Topical retinoids

A group of medications for normalizing the follicle cell lifecycle are topical retinoids such as tretinoin (brand name Retin-A), adapalene (brand name Differin), and tazarotene (brand name Tazorac). Like isotretinoin, they are related to vitamin A, but they are administered as topicals and generally have much milder side effects. They can, however, cause significant irritation of the skin. The retinoids appear to influence the cell creation and death lifecycle of cells in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the hyperkeratinization of these cells that can create a blockage. Retinol, a form of vitamin A, has similar but milder effects and is used in many over-the-counter moisturizers and other topical products. Effective topical retinoids have been in use over 30 years but are available only on prescription so are not as widely used as the other topical treatments. Topical retinoids often cause an initial flare up of acne and facial flushing.

Oral retinoids

Main article: isotretinoin

A daily oral intake of vitamin A derivative isotretinoin (marketed as Accutane, Amnesteem, Sotret, Claravis, Clarus) over a period of 46 months can cause long-term resolution or reduction of acne. It is believed that isotretinoin works primarily by reducing the secretion of oils from the glands, however some studies suggest that it affects other acne-related factors as well. Isotretinoin has been shown to be very effective in treating severe acne and can either improve or clear well over 80% of patie 00004000 nts. The drug has a much longer effect than anti-bacterial treatments and will often cure acne for good. The treatment requires close medical supervision by a dermatologist because the drug has many known side effects (many of which can be severe). About 25% of patients may relapse after one treatment. In those cases, a second treatment for another 46 months may be indicated to obtain desired results. It is often recommended that one lets a few months pass between the two treatments, because the condition can actually improve somewhat in the time after stopping the treatment and waiting a few months also gives the body a chance to recover. Occasionally a third or even a fourth course is used, but the benefits are often less substantial. The most common side effects are dry skin and occasional nosebleeds (secondary to dry nasal mucosa). Oral retinoids also often cause an initial flare up of acne within a month or so, which can be severe. There are reports that the drug has damaged the liver of patients. For this reason, it is recommended that patients have blood samples taken and examined before and during treatment. In some cases, treatment is terminated or reduced due to elevated liver enzymes in the blood, which might be related to liver damage. Others claim that the reports of permanent damage to the liver are unsubstantiated, and routine testing is considered unnecessary by some dermatologists. Blood triglycerides also need to be monitored. However, routine testing are part of the official guidelines for the use of the drug in many countries. Some press reports suggest that isotretinoin may cause depression but as of September 2005 there is no agreement in the medical literature as to the risk. The drug also causes birth defects if women become pregnant while taking it or take it while pregnant. For this reason, female patients are required to use two separate forms of birth control or vow abstinence while on the drug. Because of this, the drug is supposed to be given to females as a last resort after milder treatments have proven insufficient. Restrictive rules (see iPledge program) for use were put into force in the USA beginning in March 2006 to prevent misuse, causing occasioned widespread editorial comment.

Sulfur

Sulfur has an inhibitory effect on the growth of Propionibacterium acnes and, when combined with sodium sulfacetamide (5% and 10%, respectively) has been shown to reduce acne with only mild side effects.

Dermabrasion

Dermabrasion is a cosmetic medical procedure in which the surface of the skin is removed by abrasion (sanding). It is used to remove sun-damaged skin and to remove or lessen scars and dark spots on the skin. The procedure is very painful and usually requires a general anaesthetic or “twilight anaesthesia”, in which the patient is still partly conscious Afterward, the skin is very red and raw-looking, and it takes several months for the skin to regrow and heal. Dermabrasion is useful for scar removal when the scar is raised above the surrounding skin, but is less effective with sunken scars.

In the past, dermabrasion was done using a small, sterilized, electric sander. In the past decade, it has become more common to use a CO2 or Er:YAG laser. Laser dermabrasion is much easier to control, much easier to gauge, and is practically bloodless compared to classic dermabrasion.

Microdermabrasion comes from the above mentioned technique dermabrasion. Microdermabrasion is a more natural skin care that is a gentler, less invasive technology for doing an exfoliation on the skin. The goal of the microdermabrasion is to eliminate the superficial layer of the skin called the epidermis. If the surface of the abraded skin is touched, a roughness of the skin will be noticed. The roughness is keratinocytes, which are better hydrated than the surface corneocytes. Keratinocytes appear in the basal layer from the proliferation of keratinocyte stem cells. They are pushed up through the cells of the epidermis, experiencing gradual specialization until they reach the stratum corneum where they form a layer of dead, flattened, strongly keratinized cells called squamous cells. This layer creates an efficient barrier to the entry of foreign matter and infectious elements into the body and reduces moisture loss. Keratinocytes are shed and restored continuously from the stratum corneum.

The time of transit from basal layer to shedding is generally one month. Corneocytes are cells derived from keratinocytes in the late stages of terminal specialization of squamous epithelia. The microdermabrasion is done to eliminate some of the corneocytes. These cells are responsible for the impermeability of the skin. The minimizing or elimination of scars, skin lesions, blotchiness and stretch marks from the skin can be an easy process with the use of skin exfoliation. The result depends on how well the procedure known as “skin remodeling” works. Results are optimal and fewer treatments are needed with more recent and/or superficial scars. Still, microdermabrasion can be used on scars that showed up during puberty or many years later.

Phototherapy

‘Blue’ and red light

Light exposure has long been used as a short term treatment for acne. Recently, visible light has been successfully employed to treat mild to moderate acne (phototherapy or deep penetrating light therapy) – in particular intense violet light (405-420nm) generated by purpose-built fluorescent lighting, dichroic bulbs, LEDs or lasers. Used twice weekly, this has been shown to reduce the number of acne lesions by about 64% and is even more effective when applied daily. The mechanism appears to be that a porphyrin (Coproporphyrin III) produced within P. acnes generates free radicals when irradiated by 420nm and shorter wavelengths of light. Particularly when applied over several days, these free radicals ultimately kill the bacteria. Since porphyrins are not otherwise present in skin, and no UV light is employed, it appears to be safe, and has been licensed by the U.S. FDA.

The treatment apparently works even better if used with a mixture of the violet light and red visible light (660 nanometer) resulting in a 76% reduction of lesions after three months of daily treatment for 80% of the patients; and overall clearance was similar or better than benzoyl peroxide. Unlike most of the other treatments few if any negative side effects are typically experienced, and the development of bacterial resistance to the treatment seems very unlikely. After treatment, clearance can be longer lived than is typical with topical or oral antibiotic treatments; several months is not uncommon. The equipment or treatment, however, is relatively new and reasonably expensive to buy initially, although the total cost of ownership can be similar to many other treatment methods (such as the total cost of benzoyl peroxide, moisturizer, washes) over a couple of years of use.

Photodynamic therapy

In addition, basic science and clinical work by dermatologists Yoram Harth and Alan Shalita and others has produced evidence that intense blue/violet light (405-425 nanometer) can decrease the number of inflammatory acne lesion by 60-70% in four weeks of therapy, particularly when the P. acnes is pretreated with delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which increases the production of porphyrins. However this photodynamic therapy is controversial and apparently not published in a peer reviewed journal. A phase II trial, while it showed improvement occurred, failed to show improved response compared to the blue/violet light alone.

Surgery

For patients with cystic acne, boils can be drained through surgical lancing.

Subcision

Subcision is a process used to treat deep rolling scars left behind by acne or other skin diseases. Essentially the process involves separating the skin tissue in the affected area from the deeper scar tissue. This allows the blood to pool under the affected area, eventually causing the deep rolling scar to level off with the rest of the skin area. Once the skin has leveled, treatments such as laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion or chemical peels can be used to smooth out the scarred tissue.

Laser treatment

Laser surgery has been in use for some time to reduce the scars left behind by acne, but research has been done on lasers for prevention of acne formation itself. The laser is used to produce one of the following effects:

to burn away the follicle sac from which the hair grows

to burn away the sebaceous gland which produces the oil

to induce formation of oxygen in the bacteria, killing them

Since lasers and intense pulsed light sources cause thermal damage to the skin, there are concerns that laser or intense pulsed light treatments for acne will induce hyperpigmented macules (spots) or cause long-term dryness of the skin.

In the United States, the FDA has approved several companies, such as Candela Corp., to use a cosmetic laser for the treatment of acne. However, efficacy studies have used very small sample sizes (fewer than 100 subjects) for periods of six months or less, and have shown contradictory results. Also, laser treatment being relatively new, protocols remain subject to experimentation and revision, and treatment can be quite expensive. Also, some Smoothbeam laser devices had to be recalled due to coolant failure, which resulted in painful burn injuries to patients.

Less widely used treatments

Aloe vera: there are treatments for acne mentioned in Ayurveda using herbs such as Aloe vera, Neem, Haldi (Turmeric) and Papaya. There is limited evidence from medical studies on these products. Products from Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa (commonly known as Turmeric), Hemidesmus indicus (known as ananthamoola or anantmula), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, but not aloe vera.

Azelaic acid (brand names Azelex, Finevin and Skinoren) is suitable for mild, comedonal acne.

Calendula used in suspension is used as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Cortisone injection into spots, also cortisone pills are sometimes used.

Comedo extraction

Hydrogen Peroxide oxidizes acne which kills bacteria.

Heat: local heating may be used to kill the bacteria in a developing pimple and so speed healing.

Naproxen or ibuprofen are used for some moderate acne for their anti-inflammatory effect.

Nicotinamide, (Vitamin B3) used topically in the form of a gel, has been shown in a 1995 study to be of comparable efficacy to topical clindamycin topical antibiotic used for comparison. Topical nicotinamide is available both on prescription and over-the-counter. The property of topical nicotinamide’s benefit in treating acne seems to be its anti-inflammatory nature. It is also purported to result in increased synthesis of collagen, keratin, involucrin and flaggrin and may also according to a cosmetic company be useful for reducing skin hyperpigmentation (acne scars), increased skin moisture and reducing fine wrinkles.

Pantothenic acid, (high dosage Vitamin B5)

Rofecoxib was shown to improve premenstrual acne vulgaris in a placebo controlled study.

Tea tree oil (melaleuca oil) dissolved in a carrier (5% strength) has been used with some success, where it is comparable to benzoyl peroxide but without excessive drying, kills P. acnes, and has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory in skin infections.

Zinc: Orally administered zinc gluconate has been shown to be effective in the treatment of inflammatory acne, although less so than tetracyclines.

Detoxification is a common method used by alternative medicine practitioners for the treatment of acne, although there have been no studies to prove its success. Detoxification is the process of cleansing the body of toxins purportedly caused by the environment, pharmaceutical drugs, food, and cosmetics.

History of some acne treatments

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The history of acne reaches back to the dawn of recorded history. In Ancient Egypt, it is recorded that several pharaohs were acne sufferers. From Ancient Greece comes the English word ‘acne’ (meaning ‘point’ or ‘peak’). Acne treatments are also of considerable antiquity:

Ancient Rome: bathing in hot, and often sulfurous, mineral water was one of the few available acne treatments. One of the earliest texts to mention skin problems is De Medicina by the Roman writer Celsus.

1800s: Nineteenth century dermatologists used sulphur in the treatment of acne. It was believed to dry the skin.

1920s: Benzoyl Peroxide is used

1930s: Laxatives were used as a cure for what were known as ‘chastity pimples’. Radiation also was used.

1950s: When antibiotics became available, it was discovered that they had beneficial effects on acne. They were taken orally to begin with. Much of the benefit was not from killing bacteria but from the anti-inflammatory effects of tetracycline and its relatives. Topical antibiotics became available later.

1960s: Low Radiation treatments are widely used.

1970s: Tretinoin (original Trade Name Retin A) was found effective for acne. This preceded the development of oral isotretinoin (sold as Accutane and Roaccutane) in 1980.

1980s: Accutane is introduced in the United States, and later found to be a teratogen, highly likely to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. In the United States more than 2,000 women became pregnant while taking the drug between 1982 and 2003, with most pregnancies ending in abortion or miscarriage. About 160 babies with birth defects were born.

1990s: Laser treatment introduced

2000s: Blue/red light therapy

Future treatments

A vaccine against inflammatory acne has been tested successfully in mice, but it is not certain that it would work similarly in humans.

A 2007 microbiology article reporting the first genome sequencing of a Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage (PA6) said this “should greatly enhance the development of a potential bacteriophage therapy to treat acne and therefore overcome the significant problems associated with long-term antibiotic therapy and bacterial resistance.”

Talarozole, a retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent, is currently under investigation for acne therapy in combination with tretinoin.[citation needed]

Preferred treatments by types of acne vulgaris

Comedonal (non-inflammatory) acne: local treatment with azelaic acid, salicylic acid, topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide.

Mild papulo-pustular (inflammatory) acne: benzoyl peroxide or topical retinoids, topical antibiotics (such as erythromycin).

Moderate inflammatory acne: benzoyl peroxide or topical retinoids combined with oral antibiotics (tetracyclines). Isotretinoin is an option.

Severe inflammatory acne, nodular acne, acne resistant to the above treatments: isotretinoin also known as Accutane, can be prescribed by a doctor, or contraceptive pills with cyproterone for females with virilization or drospirenone.

Acne scars

Acne often leaves small scars where the skin gets a “volcanic” shape.

Physical acne scars are often referred to as “Icepick” scars. This is because the scars tend to cause an indentation in the skin’s surface. There are a range of treatments available. Although quite rare, the medical condition Atrophia Maculosa Varioliformis Cutis also results in “acne like” depressed scars on the face.

Ice pick scars: Deep pits, that are the most common and a classic sign of acne scarring.

Box car scars: Angular scars that usually oc 00004000 cur on the temple and cheeks, and can be either superficial or deep, these are similar to chickenpox scars.

Rolling scars: Scars that give the skin a wave-like appearance.

Hypertrophic scars: Thickened, or keloid scars.

Pigmentation

Pigmented scars is a slightly misleading term as it suggests a change in the skin’s pigmentation and that they are true scars; however, neither is true. Pigmented scars are usually the result of nodular or cystic acne (the painful ‘bumps’ lying under the skin). They often leave behind an inflamed red mark. Often, the pigmentation scars can be avoided simply by avoiding aggravation of the nodule or cyst. When sufferers try to ‘pop’ cysts or nodules, pigmentation scarring becomes significantly worse[citation needed], and may even bruise the affected area. Pigmentation scars nearly always fade with time taking between three months to two years to do so, although rarely can persist.

On the other hand, some peoplearticularly those with naturally tanned skino develop brown hyperpigmentation scars due to increased production of the pigment melanin. These too typically fade over time.

Grading scale

There are multiple grading scales for grading the severity of acne vulgaris, three of these being: Leeds acne grading technique: Counts and categorises lesions into inflammatory and non-inflammatory (ranges from 0-10.0). ‘Cook’s acne grading scale: Uses photographs to grade severity from 0 to 8 (0 being the least severe and 8 being the most severe). Pillsbury scale: Simply classifies the severity of the acne from 1 (least severe) to 4 (most severe).

See also

Blackhead

Keratosis pilaris

Rosacea

Chloracne

Liamitus

List of cutaneous conditions

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^ Dreno B, Moyse D, Alirezai M, Amblard P, Auffret N, Beylot C, Bodokh I, Chivot M, Daniel F, Humbert P, Meynadier J, Poli F (2001). “Multicenter randomized comparative double-blind controlled clinical trial of the safety and efficacy of zinc gluconate versus minocycline hydrochloride in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris”. Dermatology 203 (2): 13540. doi:10.1159/000051728. ISSN 1018-8665. PMID 11586012.

^ “Tretinoin (retinoic acid) in acne” (Free full text). The Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics 15 (1): 3. January 1973. ISSN 0025-732X. PMID 4265099. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/acne.html.

^ Jones H, Blanc D, Cunliffe WJ (November 1980). “13-cis retinoic acid and acne”. Lancet 2 (8203): 10489. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(80)92273-4. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 6107678.

^ Brard A, Azoulay L, Koren G, Blais L, Perreault S, Oraichi D (February 2007). “Isotretinoin, pregnancies, abortions and birth defects: a population-based perspective”. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 63 (2): 196205. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02837.x. PMID 17214828.

^ Holmes SC, Bankowska U, Mackie RM (March 1998). “The prescription of isotretinoin to women: is every precaution taken?”. The British Journal of Dermatology 138 (3): 4505. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1998.02123.x. PMID 9580798.

^ Kim J (October 2008). “Acne vaccines: therapeutic option for the treatment of acne vulgaris?”. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 128 (10): 23534. doi:10.1038/jid.2008.221. PMID 18787542.

^ Farrar MD, Howson KM, Bojar RA, et al. (June 2007). “Genome sequence and analysis of a Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage”. Journal of Bacteriology 189 (11): 41617. doi:10.1128/JB.00106-07. PMID 17400737.

^ Leeds, Cook’s and Pillsbury scales obtained from here

Further reading

Review articles and guidelines

Webster GF (August 2002). “Acne vulgaris”. BMJ 325 (7362): 4759. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7362.475. PMID 12202330.

Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, et al. (July 2003). “Management of acne: a report from a Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 49 (1 Suppl): S137. doi:10.1067/mjd.2003.618. PMID 12833004.

Feldman S, Careccia RE, Barham KL, Hancox J (May 2004). “Diagnosis and treatment of acne”. American Family Physician 69 (9): 212330. PMID 15152959.

Haider A, Shaw JC (August 2004). “Treatment of acne vulgaris”. JAMA 292 (6): 72635. doi:10.1001/jama.292.6.726. PMID 15304471.

Katsambas, A; Cunliffe, W (2004). “Commentary: Acne and its treatment”. Clinics in Dermatology 22: 359. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.03.003.

James WD (April 2005). “Clinical practice. Acne”. The New England Journal of Medicine 352 (14): 146372. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp033487. PMID 15814882.

“Drugs for acne, rosacea and psoriasis”. Treatment Guidelines from the Medical Letter 3 (35): 4956. July 2005. PMID 15961971. http://www.medicalletter.org/scripts/articlefind.cgi?issue=35&page=49.

Sinclair W, Jordaan HF (November 2005). “Acne guideline 2005 update”. South African Medical Journal 95 (11 Pt 2): 88192. PMID 16344888. http://blues.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/Authorize?sessionid=0:autho=pubmed:password=pubmed2004&/AdvancedQuery?&format=F&next=images/ejour/m_samj/m_samj_v95_n11_a21.pdf.

Zaenglein AL, Thiboutot DM (September 2006). “Expert committee recommendations for acne management”. Pediatrics 118 (3): 118899. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2022. PMID 16951015.

Purdy S, de Berker D (November 2006). “Acne”. BMJ 333 (7575): 94953. doi:10.1136/bmj.38987.606701.80. PMID 17082546.

Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, et al. (April 2007). “Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 56 (4): 65163. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.08.048. PMID 17276540.

Reference books and chapters

Plewig, Gerd; Kligman, Albert M. (2000). Acne and rosacea (3rd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-66751-2.

Cunliffe, William J.; Gollnick, Harald P. M. (2001). Acne: diagnosis and management. London: Martin Dunitz. ISBN 1-85317-206-5.

Thiboutot, Diane M.; Strauss, John S. (2003). “Diseases of the sebaceous glands”. in Burns, Tony; Breathnach, Stephen; Cox, Neil; Griffiths, Christopher. Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp.67287. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Zaenglein, Andrea L.; Thiboutot, Diane M. (2003). “Acne vulgaris”. in Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Rapini, Ronald P. (eds.). Dermatology. London: Mosby. pp.53144. ISBN 0-32302-4092.

Habif, Thomas P. (2004). “Acne, rosacea, and related disorders”. Clinical dermatology: a color guide to diagnosis and therapy (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby. pp.162208. ISBN 0-323-01319-8.

Simpson, Nicholas B.; Cunliffe, William J. (2004). “Disorders of the sebaceous glands”. in Burns, Tony; Breathnach, Stephen; Cox, Neil; Griffiths, Christopher. Rook’s textbook of dermatology (7th ed.). Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science. pp.43.175. ISBN 0-632-06429-3.

James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; Elston, Dirk M. (2006). “Acne”. Andrews’ diseases of the skin: clinical dermatology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. pp.23150. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Acne

Acne vulgaris: more than skin deep (on the psychological effects of acne)

Acne photo library at Dermnet

Acne from the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Story on Acne from the Better Health Channel

“AcneNet”. American Academy of Dermatology. http://www.skincarephysicians.com/acnenet. – Dermatologist-reviewed information about acne.

Q&A about Acne, from the National Institutes of Health.

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Acne-treating agents (D10)

Antibacterial

Azelaic acid Benzoyl peroxide Blue light therapy Tea tree oil

Keratolytic

Glycolic acid Salicylic acid Sulfur Benzoyl peroxide

Anti-inflammatory

Aspirin Ibuprofen Red light therapy

Antibiotics

Clindamycin Dapsone Erythromycin Sulfacetamide Minocycline Tetracyclines

Hormonal

Antiandrogens Contraceptives

Retinoids

Adapalene Isotretinoin Tazarotene Tretinoin

Combinations

ZIANA Duac BenzaClin PLEXION Epiduo

vde

Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology

Growths

Epidermal

wart callus seborrheic keratosis acrochordon molluscum contagiosum actinic keratosis squamous cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma merkel cell carcinoma nevus sebaceous trichoepithelioma

Pigmented

Freckles lentigo melasma nevus melanoma

Dermal and

subcutaneous

epidermal inclusion cyst hemangioma dermatofibroma keloid lipoma neurofibroma xanthoma Kaposi’s sarcoma infantile digital fibromatosis granular cell tumor leiomyoma lymphangioma circumscriptum myxoid cyst

Rashes

With

epidermal

involvement

Eczematous

contact dermatitis atopic dermatitis seborrheic dermatitis stasis dermatitis lichen simplex chronicus Darier’s disease glucagonoma syndrome langerhans cell histiocytosis lichen sclerosus pemphigus foliaceus Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Zinc deficiency

Scaling

psoriasis tinea (corporis cruris pedis manuum faciei) pityriasis rosea secondary syphillis mycosis fungoides systemic lupus erythematosus pityriasis rubra pilaris parapsoriasis ichthyosis

Blistering

herpes simplex herpes zoster varicella bullous impetigo acute contact dermatitis pemphigus vulgaris bullous pemphigoid dermatitis herpetiformis porphyria cutanea tarda epidermolysis bullosa simplex

Papular

scabies insect bite reactions lichen planus miliaria keratosis pilaris lichen spinulosus transient acantholytic dermatosis lichen nitidus pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta

Pustular

acne vulgaris acne rosacea folliculitis impetigo candidiasis gonococcemia dermatophyte coccidioidomycosis subcorneal pustular dermatosis

Hypopigmented

tinea versicolor vitiligo pityriasis alba postinflammatory hyperpigmentation tuberous sclerosis idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis leprosy hypopigmented mycosis fungoides

Without

epidermal

involvement

Red

Blanchable

Erythema

Generalized

drug eruptions viral exanthems toxic erythema systemic lupus erythematosus

Localized

cellulitis abscess boil erythema nodosum carcinoid syndrome fixed drug eruption

Specialized

urticaria erythema (multiforme migrans gyratum repens annulare centrifugum ab igne)

Nonblanchable

Purpura

Macular

thrombocytopenic purpura actinic purpura

Papular

disseminated intravascular coagulation vasculitis

Indurated

scleroderma/morphea granuloma annulare lichen sclerosis et atrophicus necrobiosis lipoidica

Miscellaneous

disorders

Ulcers

Hair

telogen effluvium androgenic alopecia trichotillomania alopecia areata systemic lupus erythematosus tinea capitis loose anagen syndrome lichen planopilaris folliculitis decalvans acne keloidalis nuchae

Nail

onychomycosis psoriasis paronychia ingrown nail

Mucous

membrane

aphthous stomatitis oral candidiasis lichen planus leukoplakia pemphigus vulgaris mucous membrane pemphigoid cicatricial pemphigoid herpesvirus coxsackievirus syphilis systemic histoplasmosis squamous cell carcinoma

vde

Disorders of skin appendages (L60-75, 700-709)

Nail

thickness: Onychogryphosis Onychauxis

color: Beau’s lines Yellow nail syndrome Leukonychia Azure Lunula

shape: Koilonychia Clubbing

other: Ingrown nail Anonychia

Hair

Hair loss

Alopecia areata (Alopecia totalis, Alopecia universalis, Ophiasis)

Androgenic alopecia Hypotrichosis Telogen effluvium Traction alopecia Lichen planopilaris Trichorrhexis nodosa

Hypertrichosis

Hirsutism

Acne/rosacea

Acneiform eruption (Acne vulgaris, Chloracne, Blackhead) Rosacea (Perioral dermatitis, Rhinophyma)

Follicular cysts

Epidermoid cyst Trichilemmal cyst Sebaceous cyst Steatocystoma multiplex

Inflammation

Pseudofolliculitis barbae Hidradenitis suppurativa Folliculitis

Sweat glands

eccrine (Miliaria, Anhidrosis) apocrine (Body odor, Chromhidrosis, Fox-Fordyce disease)

skin appendage navs: anat, noncongen/congen/neoplasia, symptoms+signs/eponymous, proc

link title

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